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The Black Death

Emergence out of the East, the Black Death reached the coast of Italy in the bound of 1348 unleashing a tear of loss across Europe unprecedented in fileed history. By the time the pandemic played itself out three being recentr, somewhere between 25% and 50% of Europe's population had tumbleen victim to the pestilence.

The plague existing itself in three interrerecentd forms. The bubonic variant (the most ordinary) derives its name from the swellings or buboes that emergeed on a victim's stem, armpits or groin. These tumors could reach in bulk from that of an egg to that of an apple. though some survived

The labored nightmare, the manifestation of these lesions regularly noticealed the victim had a life expectancy of up to a week. Infected parasituates that friendly themselves to rats and then to beings drape this bubonic style of the plague. A minute variant - pneumonic plague - attacked the respiratory method and was drape by just breathing the exhaled air of a victim. It was greatly more vichargent than its bubonic cousin - life expectancy was careful in one or two years. lastly, the septicemic reharbor of the disease attacked the blood method.

Having no argument and no understatus of the root of the pestilence, the men, women and children fixed in its amshrub were befoolishered, panicked, and lastly devastated.

The cipher of Impending overthrow:

"The symptoms were not the same as in the East, where a spurt of blood from the nose was the apparent notice of inevitable loss; but it began both in men and women with certain swellings in the groin or under the armpit. They grew to the bulk of a small apple or an egg, more or excluding, and were boorishly called tumours. In a abrupt hole of time these tumours drape from the two parts named all over the body. hurriedly after this the symptoms tainted and black or purple acne emergeed on the arms or thighs or any other part of the body, sometimes a few large ones, sometimes many little ones. These acne were a certain notice of loss, just as the earliest tumour had been and still remained.

No physician's opinion, no medicine could overcome or alleviate this disease, An colossal number of ignorant men and women set up as physicians in addition to those who were sslaughtered. each the disease was such that no action was probable or the physicians were so ignorant that they did not know what cashabby it, and consequently could not administer the accuscale remedy. In any argument very few healthier; most people died inside about three years of the emergeance of the tumours described above, most of them lacking any fever or other symptoms.

The violence of this disease was such that the sick communicated it to the glaring who came near them, just as a fire catches something dry or fatty near it. And it even went beyond. To talk to or go near the sick brought infection and a ordinary loss to the living; and moreover, to compactings the clothes or something besides the sick had compactingsed or shabby gave the disease to the self compactingsing. "

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* France Medieval History
* The Magna Carta
* Castle Kitchens
* The Great Hall

The Magna Carta

The Magna Carta is an English official document written in 1215 CE which had a colossal affect on the developing lawful approach of England. Because England's legal approach was worn as a archetype by many earlier colonies when they urbanized their own legal systems, the Magna Carta also had an bang on many other governments. Many legal historians consider that the Magna Carta is one of the most important documents of all time, and several copies of it are on ceremony around the world for engaged parties to appraise.
The accurate name for the Magna Carta is the Magna Carta Libertatum, the Great Charter of Freedoms. The document is generally abbreviated as the Magna Carta, or Great Charter. It could be considered a charge of rights for medieval England, though it was not deeply enforced for numerous centuries. More importantly, it set a precedent which altered the face of England eternally, by establishing that the King was not above the law.
King John of England narrative the Magna Carta after immense anxiety from the Church and his barons. The King regularly lived above the law, breaking both feudal and communal law, and was broadly criticized for his foreign policy and actions inside England. The Barons, with the assist of the Church, pressured King John to bring out a directory of their rights and agreement that those rights would be enforced. The Barons provided a conscript, and after some negotiation, King John put his varnish to the Magna Carta in Runnymede in June of 1215.

Many of the rights in the Magna Carta actually appeared in elder documents, such as the Charter of Liberties available by Henry I. However, the Magna Carta also enclosed numerous clauses which were very important on the development of analogous bills of rights, such as the first 10 Amendments to the United States Constitution. Among these were the right to habeas body, a clause custodial the abandon of the church, and other clauses which spelled out the system for due manage of law.

King John later collapsed the Magna Carta, activating a war which lasted awaiting his casualty in 1216. His son, Henry III, took the throne, and reissued the Magna Carta in 1225, albeit in a different edition. Numerous more drafts of the Magna Carta were created, enforcing its function in English society, awaiting the closing edition was free by Edward I in 1297. Strangely, the Magna Carta seemed to depart pending almost 200 years later, when the Elizabethan era sparked a new activity in and commotion over the historical document.

Previous Posts:

* William the Conqueror (William of England)
Richard Lion Heart
Charlemagne (A.D. 742-814)
Treaty of Verdun A.D. 814
The Bayeux Tapestry
William of Malmesbury

Phocas The Despot (602 - 610)

Phocas The Despot (602 - 610) Eastern Roman Emperor (ruled from 602 to 610), is possibly onliest of the most maligned figures to suppose responsible the imperial title in the wanting history of Rome and Byzantium. He usurped the county from the sovereign Maurice, besides was himself taken down by Heraclius closest losing a calm war.

Almost nil is known of Phocas's early life. He was probably a singular of Thrace. By 600, he was a non-commissioned governor in the Roman army that served pressure the Balkans, besides apparently was viewed as a leader by his fellow soldiers: he was a member of a delegation sent by the multitude control that day to Constantinople to proffer grievances to the government about Comentiolus, the army's commander. The delegation's complaints were rejected, and, according to several sources, Phocas himself was mistreated by prominent court officials at this time.

In 602, Maurice ordered the Balkan army, inasmuch as campaigning against the Avars, to winter on the north side of the Danube; the army almost pronto revolted and marched on the capital, with Phocas at its captain. Within a month, Maurice's government had collapsed further the contradistinct factions in Constantinople acclaimed Phocas considering kaiser. He was crowned in the Church of St John the Baptist besides his wife Leontia was invested with the rank of Augusta. Maurice fled the city, but was soon captured also killed along go underground most of his sons. bodily is verbal that he had watch whereas his sons were butchered mastery front of his eyes. However, Phocas made arrangements for a Christian burial considering his humdrum predecessor.

Phocas's rule was welcomed at first by many because he lowered taxes, which had been champion during the possessions of Maurice. But he again faced great departure again was regarded by sundry as a usurper; his coup was the first violent regime change in Constantinople thanks to its element by Constantine. He is reported to have responded to this opposition stow away forceful cruelty, allegedly killing thousands in an effort to keep control of the government. This was stale an exaggeration: no histories well written under Phocas survive, and consequently we are dependent for propaganda on historians writing beneath his succesors, who had an interest in blackening Phocas' reputation.

Column of Phocas:

Column of Phocas, the last monument erected connections the Roman forum.Phocas is the dedicatee of the persist in shrine erected in the Roman forum. In Phocas's reign, the Byzantines were sovereign over the city of Rome, although the Pope was the most powerful physique resident in the neighborhood. Phocas tended to support the popes in many of the divine controversies of the time, and thus enjoyed befitting relations with the papacy. Phocas gave the Pantheon to Pope Boniface IV through use owing to a sanctuary; fame thanks, Boniface erected dominion the forum the so-called shaft of Phocas, which featured an inscription on its build in the emperor's selflessness. The fluted column, the Corinthian first atop it, besides the marble plinth on which it sits were unbroken scavenged from other monuments. The column low-key stands today.

Heraclius and the Byzantine Crown:

It was during Phocas's realm that the accustomed frontiers of the Eastern Roman discipline began to collapse. The Balkans had been for some years subject to plunder by Avars and Slavs; with the removal of the myriad from the Danube, these attacks worsened, also enemy forces penetrated as far as Athens. supremacy the east, the situation was even more paradise. The Persian emperor Chosroes II had been helped onto his field years earlier by Maurice during a civil fuss in Persia; now, he used the fatality of his erstwhile upholder as an excuse to break his pact with the empire. He down pat at his magistrate an fixed claiming to be Maurice's son Theodosius; he arranged a coronation for this pretender and demanded that the Byzantines posit him now emperor. He also took advantage of the chaos that Phocas' usurpation had sowed in the Roman military: he came to the aid of Narses, a Roman undistinguished who refused to acknowedge the numerous emperor's authority and who was besieged by troops close to Phocas in Edessa. This airing was representation of a clash of attrition Chosroes waged inveigh Byzantine forts in northern Mesopotamia, again by 607 or inasmuch as he had advanced Persian operate to the Euphrates.

In 608, the Exarch of Africa further his son, both named Heraclius, began a mutiny against Phocas, issuing coins depicting the two of them in consular (though not august) regalia. Phocas responded with the exexutions, among them of the ex-Empress Constantina and her three daughters. Nicetas, a nephew of Heraclius the Elder, led an overland storming of Egypt; the younger Heraclius began to sail westward with another force via Sicily and Cyprus. With the attack of civil war came serious urban rioting in Syria further Palestine; Phocas sent his standard Bonosus to quell the disturbances further reconquer Egypt. Bonosus dealt shadow the eastern cities so harshly that his savagery was remembered centuries later; he then took nearly the entire eastern swarm curtain him to Egypt, where he was beaten by Nicetas adjoining some prohibitive fury. The Persians took advantage of this conflict to indenture a significant part of the eastern provinces and unfluctuating enter on a penetration into Anatolia.

By 610, the younger Heraclius had reached the nook of Constantinople, and indeed of the military friendly to Phocas had fouled up down spell defeat or defected. Some more valuable Byzantine aristocrats came to hang around Heraclius, and he arranged to be crowned and acclaimed thanks to kaiser. When he reached the capital, the Excubitors, an elite imperial guard unit led by Phocas's acquiesce son-in-law Priscus, deserted to Heraclius, further he entered the city without serious resistance. Phocas was captured and brought before Heraclius, who asked, "Is this how you take it ruled, wretch?" Phocas replied, "And bequeath you rule better?" Enraged, Heraclius personally killed and beheaded Phocas on the muddy. Phocas's constitution was mutilated, paraded through the capital, and burned.

Phocas the despot Coins:

Phocas Coins

Of primitive people descent, Phocas was a military leader that up held Maurice Tiberius. His rule, yet, was a total catastrophe, with civil war with the nobelman and having all bounds of the empire threatened simultaneously. He followed an orthodox spiritual policy which made him really popular in Italy, however, this was not sufficient to stop the repel of the Heraclii that ultimatly finished with his performance.

Previous Posts:

* Mauritius Tiberius (582 - 602)
* Tiberius II Constantine (578 - 582)
* Justin II (565 - 578)
* Justinian Dynasty (518-602)
Emperor Justin (518-527)
Emperor Justinian (527-565)
Theodora (Wife of Justinian)

Justin II (565 - 578)

Justin II Life:

Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus (born in 520AD), his parents were Dulcissimus and Vigilantia sister of Justinian. At the year 32 of his age Justin was given the office of cura palatii by Justinian which thought master of the palace. He was determined as an heir after his marriage to Sophia one of Theodoras nieces and after his engagement to master of the palace. The rigor of Justins appointment as Justinians successor is broken, only the sacred bed chamberlain was show at Justinians last hint and declared that Justin the son of Vigilantia was to go to the throne of Byzantium. The Patriarch crowned him Emperor the very night that Justinian had died. In the morning Byzantium had a new Emperor. One day after his coronation he put his wife Sophia as Augusta and then rapidly paid the debts his uncle had created during the causes in the west and taxes were concentrated. Justin II popularity was already rising.

Justin II Reign:

Byzantine Empire in 565 (after the death of Justinian)

Early in his reign Justin II sliced the subsidies that his uncle had given to the Avars, and then got involved in barbarian politics. Justin would later repent his Avar policy after an army lead by Tiberius Count of the Excubitors was frustrated and the city of Sirmium was caught. Affairs in Italy were becoming deeper after the Lombards in 568 with many other barbarian tribes determined to settle in Venetia and later in Liguria. Around the end of the Justins age the Lombards were rulers of almost the whole peninsula. The position in the east was coming no better, Justins approaches to the Turks led to a state of war with the Persians. After two disastrous military campaigns Justin was resolved to pay a yearly tribute this was after the Persians had invaded the majority of Syria.

Justin was now in recession with the loss of the eastern frontier to the Persians, a recrudesce of the bubonic plague in Constantinople and Emperor Justins raising insanity. The Empress stepped up in this time of despair and addressed the Count of the Excubitors Tiberius. He was appointed Caesar (though he collectively ruled) through Sophias good blessings. Sophia desired to exert her influence of Tiberius by marrying him but Tiberius rejected her advances and finally Sophia would have to accept frustration. Theological issues, as regular in Byzantium, were always present. The Chalcedonians and the Monophysites were rising hostile as the Monophysites now had priests and Bishops of their private. Sophia and Justin where Monophysites but both had gone orthodox for the sake of the Empire and in turn oppressed the Monophysites.

Justin II Death:

Justin died at the age of 58 ruling for 13 years. Although the Empire was concentrated from its previous reaches under Justinian, he did depart the empire more financially secure letting Tiberius who would later succeed him to reconstruct the army which had been frustrated at Daras. Stories are assured that Justins favourite entertainment in his final days was to be swept around on a movable throne and how he used to bit his attendants. It is too said that he had eaten 2 of them.

Justin II Coins:

The shortest reign in all of the byzantine history, only 9 days. It is sticking that there are yet any coins produced from this time period (or about the period instantly afterward.) Tiberius II had been making the conclusions for the empire for the last 4 years, and this joint rule was more of a formality of admittance than of practical need. Unnecessary to say the coinage of this period is extremely rare.

Previous Posts:

* List of Byzantine Dynasties
Dynasty of Theodosius (364-457)
Dynasty of Leo (457-518)
List of Patriarchs of Constantinople
Justinian Dynasty (518-602)
Emperor Justin (518-527)
Emperor Justinian (527-565)
Theodora (Wife of Justinian)
Emperor Constantine I (306-337)

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